Berichte

The industrial and agricultural project in the Mamberamo river catchment area in the Indonesian province of Irian Jaya/West Papua

Berlin, May 1998

The information was compiled with kind support from Down to Earth, London

The watershed and project area covers a staggering 7,711,602 hectares almost the same size as Java. Almost 100% of the area is covered by primary tropical rainforests. Currently it is classified as production forests (31.6%), conversion forest (29.6%) and protected forest (29.6%) and other categories (1.4%). Wildlife found in the area includes, crocodiles, tree kangaroos, cassowary birds, parrots and birds of paradise. The catchment area of the river system includes part of the central mountains of New Guinea with their forests, coastal forests and the tropical marshlands of the lowlands. Part of the area in the upper reaches – the Mamberamo Fojo Protected Area – is proposed as a nature reserve, possibly a world heritage site. The forests are classified as production forests, (for forestry) (31.6%) as conversion forests (i.e. conversion for the purpose of development such as agriculture) (29.6%) and as protected forests/national park (37.4%).

The people

In 1995, according to public Indonesian statistics, about 7,381 inhabitants were living in the area. They live a semi-nomadic life by hunting, fishing, horticulture and harvesting sago palms. The peoples of the area include the Namunaweja, Bauzi, Dani, Manau, Kawera and Anggreso.

There is little circulation of cash in the area and few schools. The lack of money circulation makes it difficult for the inhabitants to go to the towns Sarmi or Jayapura for higher education. A crocodile trade exists between the local people and members of the armed forces resp. a company. The Protestant Indonesian Church (GKI) is active in some of the subdistricts of the area. Fishing boats from other parts of Indonesia exploit the fishing grounds, harm the ecosystem and thereby threaten the resource base of the local peoples.

The project

The former minister of Technology and current Vice President of Indonesia, Habibie, wants to develop this enormous forest area. Following estimates from Indonesian studies which have not yet been verified, 10,000 to 20,000 MW are expected to be generated from the dam and power plants. Downstream, there are plans to develop industrial estates including metals processing plants, chemical/petrochemical industries and agroindustries. There are plans to build a copper smelter in the project area to process copper concentrate from the controversial US/British-owned Freeport mine in the south of Irian Jaya/West Papua.

Another main focus of the project is the utilisation of about 1 million ha for agricultural and fishery activities. About 300,000 families from western parts of Indonesia are to be resettled in the catchment area to develop agriculture. The Governor of Irian Jaya/West Papua told the press in 1997 that the local people would be resettled in a new town.

The upper reaches of the river system are set aside for the dams, agriculture, power plants, forestry and agroindustry, the lower reaches for industrial estates and settlements (housing).

First to be developed are the pioneer industries (heavy industries, chemical and petrochemical industries) at the mouth of the river (Waropen Bay/Mamberamo Hilir). Since the beginning of 1997 there has been the idea that waste gas (CO2) from the gas fields of the Natuna Islands (sited near Singapore) could be used in the industry projects of Mamberamo. Habibie initiated this Natuna project, too. Experts consider the processing of CO2 to be unrealistic on economical and technical grounds.Despite this, at the 2nd German-Indonesian Forum (GIF) in 1996 the Indonesians and Germans did agree to co-operate over the processing of the waste gas.

In autumn ’96 the Terms Of References (TOR, annex C) were presented to the German embassy and the companies. These are proposals for a feasibility study comprising 11 single studies. Proposed sources of funding for the single studies are Indonesia and Australia, but above all “German Institutions”. These studies cover several industrial and hydropower projects. They also include an Environmental Impact Assessment and a study of the development of a copper concentrate smelter for the copper from the Freeport mine.

The basic preliminary studies within the feasibility study (as proposed in the TOR) will cost about 13 million DM, according to the assessment of a German company. (The organisation Watch Indonesia! has expressed its concerns about the TOR and the planning in a letter to the German embassy, annex D).

The time frame for the realisation of the project is 20 years. The Indonesian press reported in 1997 that the project is to be implemented by presidential decree. On 2nd February ’98 an Indonesian newspaper report on the Mamberamo project (Kompas) mentions Australian, Japanese and German aid. However, this article says nothing really new and seems to be aimed at stating that the project will go forward despite the currency crisis.

In April ’97 a Mamberamo workshop was organised by several Indonesian agencies responsible for the project to attract foreign and Indonesian investors. The documents provided at the workshop, which cover a whole range of subjects, from the potential for nickel mining to recommendations for eco-tourism, reveal the alarming possibilities for the destruction of this vast and bio-diverse region. They also show how different lobby groups are promoting their own interests. One scenario, for example, shows that of the total area of almost 8 million hectares, around 75% consists of protection forests, leaving around 2 million hectares for cultivation. In the paper presented by a member of the agribusiness lobby, an alternative scenario is suggested, in which almost all the area is deforested, with around a million hectares reserved for plantations alone.

The paper presented by Japanese consultants Nippon Koei, suggests that the area be expanded to include all of the northern coastal area east of the river to the provincial capital, Jayapura. This brings to 13,887,700 hectares the total project area – or almost one third of West Papua’s land area. The paper says that land suitable for agricultural development amount to around 2.9 million hectares and that the rest should be reserved for environment and wildlife. Going by the April seminar documents, there is as yet no clear picture of how much land is to be utilised for what. Neither is there much of an indication as to where the project components will be located. The Terms of Reference say that the upstream area will be used for the dams, agriculture, agro-industry and forestry, while downstream will be the industrial estates, “settlements” (presumably including transmigration sites), transport and other infrastructures. Contributors to the April seminar have various other ideas.

Thirty four potential sites for damming the river have been identified on the Mamberamo and its tributaries. Two of these, both on the Mamberamo itself, have been identified for further studies. They are called Mamberamo I (estimated to produce around 5.700 MW) and Mamberamo II (933 MW). The subdistrict capital of Central Mamberamo is the village of Kasonaweja, 135 km from the mouth of the Mamberamo River. There are plans to build a shipping terminal, along with warehouses, offices and a trade centre here. The mountainous region is believed to be rich in minerals, including gold, copper, bauxite and nickel. The development of power for smelting could make the mining of nickel in other areas feasible.

In the few papers which consider the question of local people, only one, by local university lecturer Dr Benny Giay, questions the whole development approach and shows genuine concern for their fate. He recommends that the indigenous population of the Mamberamo be involved in planning the project from the start; that their land rights be recognised as assets or shares in the project; that they be informed about the possible environmental and social impacts of the project via local NGOs, the church, radio etc. And that their own organisations be recognised and empowered so that local leaders can represent the interests of their people in negotiations with the government.

The first/current activities by the authorities in the lower and middle reaches of the catchment area are the construction of quays. According to information received in January ’98 accommodation for about 3,000 people are currently being constructed in the lower reaches. The authorities are also attempting to win the local people over to the project. Following reports from the region, land has already been taken from the local people under unfair conditions (by using bribery, threats; alterating documents – for example by adding an extra zero on figures for extent of the land in question).

German involvement

In January ’97 a member of the German Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Wilfried Grolig, visited Irian Iaya. He showed caution towards the project asking that the time-scale be long term and development be done with caution. In June ’97 a German Parlamentarian asked the Gouvernment what it knew about the project and whether there were plans to provide public money to support it. The government replied that there were no intentions to use development co-operation funds and that there were as yet no other public funds involved. In response to a second question raising concern about the impact on the rights of local people, the government said the Indonesian Government would take into consideration the impacts to environment, the problems of transmigration and the resettlement of the local people. A similar answer was received by Watch Indonesia! in response to a letter to the German Embassy in Jakarta.

The German companies Siemens, Ferrostaal and Hochtief have been approached by the Indonesian authorities to invest in the project. Until now, they have only invested 100,000 DM each in a preliminary study. Their activities are likely to be in the field of dam/power plant (Siemens/Hochtief), heavy industry (Ferrostaal) and infrastructure (Hochtief). Ferrostaal might consider acting only as a consultant to the project. The Indonesian side wishes them to implement their projects through the Build – Operate – Transfer system (BOT). This means that the companies are to construct the facilities and run them until they have made their agreed profit and then transfer them to the Indonesian operators.

At the beginning of December 1997 at the 3rd meeting of the German Indonesian Forum there was an unpuplicised meeting of a working group on the Mamberamo Project ( list of participants see annex E), not listed in the GIF’s public announcements. It became clear in the session, that the project should be handled as a low profile project until the feasibility study is finished. The feasibility study will follow the current preliminary study. An application for funding from public (German) loans (Hermes and KfW – Kreditanstalt fuer Wiederaufbau) will only be made after the feasibility study is finished. It was also said in the session that Habibie, who was in Germany at this time secured an informal “recommendation” for the project from Chancellor Helmut Kohl. In the session there was no agreement about the basic construction concept (the Germans want to plan the industry first and then estimate the power needed while the Indonesians want to build the dams first and develop the industries after.

Opinions of the local people/advocacy

Different persons who are familiar with the area fear that the local people could agree to the project without understanding the implications. The lack of money in the region means that they can easily be persuaded by the authorities. The people are not made aware or informed about alternative development options. People with higher education/better access to information don’t usually stay long in the area, so that community representation is difficult to organise. Also, the difficult relations between local people and the army must be taken into consideration.

The Protestant Church of Indonesia (GKI) quotes the people as follows: “We don’t want to reject the plans of the government for the development of this region. But we ask to do something for the people first. We as local people are not yet prepared for it”. The GKI recommends that the people are informed about all plans, that they take part in the planning and that they are prepared for the possible changes. This could be done with the help of non-governmental organisations (NGOs). Some public figures from Irian Jaya/West Papua who are critical of the projects, are pushing for a “bottom-up” development process. But despite their efforts and despite the fact that one of them, Beny Giay, was one of the participants of the Mamberamo workshop of April ’97, there has already been a negative impact on the local peoples (land rights ignored and lack of participation).

Concerns

a. Social and political concerns

Experience shows that Social and political conflicts in Irian Jaya/West Papua are mostly rooted in the way natural resources are exploited and the resultant conflicts with indigenous communities over traditional rights and interests. Regular features of this exploitation include the resettlement of people from other parts of Indonesia, the unfair appropriation of land, ecological damage (which threatens the way of life and economy of local communities) and the lack of information or equal participation of the local peoples. The Indonesian government’s attempts to impose a Western/Javanese way of life and economy on indigenous populations supposedly to their benefit is a damaging part of this process.

Massive social conflicts and serious human right violations are also to be expected in the Mamberamo area. With the development of the river catchment area of Mamberamo a similar pattern is emerging to other commercial developments in the province. There have been also reports about unfair land appropriation, plans to resettle people from other parts from Indonesia to the Mamberamo region and the resettlement of the local peoples to a new town. It has already become apparent that there is no appropriate participation of or information provided to the local people.

The conflicts in the isolated territory often result in several human rights violations. The Indonesian military is entrusted with the tasks of a police force and is at the same time responsible for ensuring the implementation of development projects. Civil authorities have little power or inclination to defend the interests and rights of local peoples. In projects, which are of vital interest to the government, as is the Mamberamo Project, it is difficult for investors to avoid becoming implicated in the abuse of rights, particularly since tasks like the preparation of development areas or the maintaining of security and order are the responsibility of the Indonesian authorities.

In the case of the US-based company Freeport MacMoRan Copper & Gold, whose subsidiary PT Freeport Indonesia is operating the huge copper mine in the south of Irian Jaya/West Papua, conflicts are rooted in unfair contracts with the local people. They have been deprived of huge parts of their traditional land both by mining activities directly and by the environmental impact of the mine. A large number of people from other parts of Indonesia have been resettled there to provide manpower. The local people cannot gain a foothold either in the old or in the new society. This has resulted in massive social conflicts at the Freeport site. Freeport is accused of having condoned or accepted human right violations like torture, arbitrary detention and murder. A court case is pending against the parent company in New Orleans, based on these charges. A local NGO, the tribal Council of one of the affected people, the Amungme, judged that Freeport “has always been perceived as a vital national project, thus the government and the military tend to be biased towards the PT FIC and ignore their own people”.

An example: Environmental Impact Assessment

The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is part of the feasibility study as proposed in the Terms Of References (TOR). According to the TOR the EIA should “formulate measures and activities to manage impacts (alleviate negative impacts and enhance positive impacts)”. It seems nonsense to speak about positive impacts in connection with a project like this. Positive impacts maybe occur for example where an old industry is going to be rehabilitated for re-use and where polluted soil is cleaned or new trees are planted.

What is meant by “positive impacts” becomes clearer in paper about the “Social – Economic Aspects of Environmental Impact Assessments for Mamberamo Watershed Development”, which was a paper presented at the workshop on the project in April ’97. The author is Bustanul Arifin from the think tank CIDES. Arifin argues that, particularly in the developing countries, EIAs are often perceived as an essentially negative statement and that the EIA techniques reflect a protective approach. His conclusion is: “Instead of using EIA to reduce the harmful impacts of a proposed project, it would be more appropriate to use the EIA to seek ways in which it can be beneficial.” Furthermore Arifin doesn’t take into consideration the issues of the participation of local peoples or similar general and fundamental questions although these are issues which should be addressed this early planning stage. Instead, with respect to possible social conflicts, he speaks about measures like “extension work and information dissemination concerning project objectives, value, details and the property compensation process (..) to avoid misunderstanding and suspicion among the local people (..) especially among the affected families -if any”. This does not at all meet the requirements to exclude negative impacts of the kind experienced in other parts of Irian Jaya/West Papua. Arifin also hints that the project will improve the social infrastructure (schools) and that land degradation is caused by indigenous agriculture.

b. Environment

There are no thorough studies available on the environment of the region (which possibly has international importance for the conservation of flora and fauna) or on the possible impacts of the project. Such studies are promised by the Indonesian side. Although no decision about whether or not the project should go ahead can be made without this basic information, construction has already started at the mouth of the river. The papers currently available are too vague as to how the interests of environmental protection will be considered. There are also more general problems with EIAs in Indonesia: the lack of guarantee for participation of people affected by the project or NGOs and the failure to implement environmental protection or impact mitigation measures. Furthermore there are the following doubts: The laws on environmental protection in Indonesia are sufficient but they are not enforced. Priority is given to large projects which are of vital importance to the government or to single influential people. For example, borders of protected areas are often ignored where they get in the way of such priority projects.

Sources:

Informal Business Meeting of the German – Indonesian Forum for Business and Technology, October 1997

Jakarta Post, 8. April 1997

Kleine Anfrage im Bundestag für den Monat Juni 1997, Fragen 6/179 und 6/180 (Questions to the German Government from the German Parliament, June 19976, Questions No. 6/179 and 6/180)

Kompas, 1 October 1996

Kompas, 28. Januar 1997

LEMASA (The Amungme Tribal Council), The Opinion of LEMASA Concerning the Human Rights Situation and Prolonged Conflict in the Area of Operation of P.T. FREEPORT INDONESIA, Mimika, Irian Jaya, 1 September 1997

Mamberamo Plans Proceed, Down to Earth, August 1997, No. 34

Media Indonesia, Senin 2 Pebruari 1998

Mega-disaster for Mamberamo, Down to Earth, November 1997, No. 35

Seminar dan Lokakarya, Pengembangan Daerah Aliran Sungai Mamberamo, DP-KTI, PEMDA TK I IRJA, BPPT, DIDES, April 1997, Documents

Süddeutsche Zeitung, 2. April 1997

Terms of References, E.I.D. Mamberamo River Project (Environment, Innovation and Development of Energy Intensive Industries), Government of the Republic of Indonesia, 1996

Third Meeting of the German – Indonesian Forum for Business and Technology, December 1997

ANNEX

A. Utilisation of space

The documents from the first Mamberamo – workshop (autumn 96) speak about land use as follows: Industrial estates, housing, forestry area (master plan/the draft of the master plan) 220,000 ha together with agriculture areas, fishery 8,000,000 ha, industrial estates 75,000 ha, agriculture 200,000 ha. Despite these figures no clear picture of the extent and use of the project areas has emerged.

B. Finance

At the 3rd German – Indonesian Forum a finance plan was delivered for the first 5 years:
Dam and hydropower, 5,000 MW-Financing by BOT — 5,000-7,500 million US$
Pioneer industries Aluminium—- Financing by BOT — 1,000-1,500 m US$
Steel Hydrogen — Financing by BOT —- 2,500-5,000 m US$
Copper Smelter — Financing by BOT — 2,500-5,000 m US$
Petrochemical Industry — Financing by BOT — 1,000-2,000 m US$
Pulp and Paper Industry — Financing by BOT — 1,000-2,000 m US$
Shipyard — Financing by BOT — 1,000 – 2,000 m US$
Basic Infrastructure — Financing by Govt — 400 – 600 m US$
Industrial Estate-Financing — 200-300 m US$

C. Terms of References

1. Executive Summary of the Terms of References of the EID Mamberamo River Project Environmental Impact Assessment and Regional Development Plan for the Mamberamo River Basin Development
2. Study on the Development of Copper Concentrate Smelter and ist Downstream Industries
3. Study on the Development of Nickel Processing Industries in the Mamberamo Catchment Area, Irian Jaya
4. Study on the Utilization of Hydrogen for Steel Steel Reduciton and its Downstream Industries
5. Study on the Utilization of Natuna CO2 and Mamberamo H2 for Petrochemical and related Downstream Industries
6. Study of the Mamberamo River Basin Transportation System
7. Study of the Utilization of H2 – Based fuell Cell Technology for Transportation System
8. Study on the Utilization of Mamberamo Potential for Food and Agro -Industry
9. Macro- and Micro – Studies on the Construction of Dams along Mamberamo River
10. Study on the Harnessing Hydropower Potential of the Mamberamo I and Mamberamo II Basins
11. Study on the Production of H2 through Electrolysis by Utilizing Mamberamo Hydroelectric Potential
12. Study on the Processing and Transportation of Natuna CO2 Gas in the Form of Dry Ice to Mamberamo Area Executing Agencies named by TOR Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology (BPPT) National Coordinating Agency for Survey and Mapping Environmental Impact Management Agency Ministry of Industry and Trade Ministry of Mines and Energy Ministry of Communications Ministry of Social Affairs Ministry of Public Works Ministry of Home Affairs Ministry of Agriculture

D. Letter to the German Embassy in Jakarta

In the letter the organisation Watch Indonesia! refers to the Terms of References. Watch Indonesia! says that it has learned of the unfair land appropriation, the lack of participation of the local people and the planned transmigration. The organisation explains that experiences in other parts of Irian Jaya/West Papua, especially in the Freeport case show, that social conflicts and human rights violations are to be expected as a result of the close cooperation between military and commercial interests. Then it asks for the embassy’s opinion about the Terms of References and the embassy’s further intentions in connection with the project. The letter is dated December ’97. In March ’98 Watch Indonesia! got a short answer, which just refers to the studies on the environmental and social impacts promised by the Indonesian side.

E. Participants at the 3. German Indonesian Forum

Dr. Hans Grybeck, Ferrostaal AG, Eisenbau Essen GmbH; Clemens Mastert, EKONID – AHK Jakarta (EKONID – kind of German – Indonesian chamber of commerce and trade); Dr. Kurt W.H. Pfeiffer, Siemens AG Representative Office Indonesia; Dr. Cristoph Schug, Linde AG (from Hoellriegelskreuth); Dr. Mengels, Ferrostaal; Dr. Zenhein, probably Siemens; Suleman Wiradidjaya; Mr. Komarudin, Deputi Ketua Bidang Analisa Sistem (from BPPT); Wisnoentoro Martokoesoemo, PT Energi System Indonesia; Kodyat Samadikun, Zeta Corporation Osriman Oesman, PT Siemens Indonesia; JI Pattiasina, PT Mitra Inti Perdana; Bachtiar Sonda, PT Asosiasi Perdagagangan International; Armand Mahadi, PT Krakatau Daya Listrik; Reza R. Moenaf, PT ABB Energy Systems Indonesia Prof. Katili (former MP)

F. The four agencies, organising the Mamberamo workshop in April 97 were:

DP – KTI, PEMDA TK I IRJA, BPPT, CIDES

G. Contributions of the Mamberamo workshop on 7/8 April ’97 in Jakarta

* Dr. Benny Giay, Uncen, Membangun Bersama Masyarakat: Melalui Megaproyek Mamberamo, Irian Jaya (18 pages)
* P. Sihombing, PT. PLN, Pengembangan Potensi Hydro Skala Besar di Irian Jaya (11 pages)
* Astrid S. Susanto-Sunario, LPPN, Beberapa Pokok Pikiran mengenai Dampak, Lingungan dan Sosial Budaya dan Pengembangan DAS Mamberamo di Kawasan Timur Indonesia (2 pages)
* Dr. E. Lerch, Siemens AG, Mamberamo River Project Distribution and Transmissionsystem (more than 40 pages incl.charts)
* Ir. H.E. Mackbon, Bappeda Irja, Pembangunan Regional Irian Jaya (10 pages)
* Bustanul Arifin, INDEF, Social-Economic Aspects of Environmental Impact Assement for Mamberamo Watershed Development (20 pages)
* Drs. Andi Mappisammeng, Pariwisata sebagai salah satu Potensi Pengembangan (20 pages)
* Ir. Soeparmono, Dirjen Pengairan PU, Aspek Pembangunan Bendungan untuk Mendukung Pengembangan Sumberdaya Air di DAS Mamberamo (8 pages)
* Ir. Darmoko Slamet, PT. Aneka Tambang, Development of Nickel Industry in Kawasan Timur Indonesia (6 pages)
* Ir. Supriatna Suhala, Ditjen Pertambangan Umum, Pengembangan Pertambangan Daerah dalam Kaitannya dengan Pengembangan DAS Mamberamo, Irian Jaya (18 pages)
* Rusdian Lubis et al, Bappedal, AMDAL sebagai alat Perencanaan Lingkungan Pengembangan DAS Mamberamo (9 pages)
* Yulfita Raharjo, LIPI, Irian Jaya: Pengkajian Dampak Sumberdaya Manusia (18 pages)
* Peter F. Gontha, Commission II: Petrochemical Industries and Utilization of Natuna CO2 (9 pages)
* Umar Juora, CIDES, Prospek dan Tantangan Pengembangan DAS Mamberamo: Kerjasama Pemerintah-Swasta dan Keiikutsertaan Masyarakat (17 pages)
* Dr. Hans Grybek, Eisenbau Essen GmbH, Ideas about Future Steel, production, Steel Production and the Mamberamo Project (9 pages)
* Ir. Radinal Mochtar, Menteri PU, Kebijaksanaan Pemerintah dalam Pembangunan Prasarana dan Sarana untuk Mendukung Pengembangan DAS Mamberamo (6 pages)
* Amir Sambodo, PT. Bukaka Kujang Prima, Pengembangan Industri Logal Hilir dengan Memanfaatkan Potensi DAS Mambermo (7 pages)
* Drs. Syarifuddin Harahap, Potential Identification Study Development of the Mamberamo Region, Irian Jaya (12 pages)
* Dr. Aditiawan Chandra, BKPM, Pembangunan dan Arah Kebijaksanaan Investasi DAS Mamberamo, Irian Jaya (8 pages)
* Achmad Rofi’ie, CIDES, Pengembangan Kawasan Pertumbuhan melalui Skema Kemitraan (11 pages)
* Maizar Rahman, Lemigas, Pemanfaatan CO2 Natuna untuk Industri Petrokimia di DAS Mamberamo (suatu tinjauan awal) (22 pages)
* Tom Otker, TNO, the Netherlands, CO2 Production, Storage, Transportation, and Utilization (16 pages)
* Dirjen Industri Logam, Mesin & Kimia, Pengembangan Industri Kimia dan Pemanfaatan CO2 Natuna di DAS Mamberamo (26 pages)
* Dr. M. Amin Aziz, PPA, Pendekatan awal Pengembangan Agribisnis/Agroindustri di DAS Mamberamo (12 pages)
* Deddy Muchtadi, IPB, Pangan Strategis (9 pages)
* Sofretu-Sofrerail, E.I.D. Mamberamo River Project, Session V: Regional Area and Infrastructures Development Plan, Electricity Transportation, Permanent Coordination (15 pages)
* M. Hasan, MPI, Kehutanan dan Industri Kehutanan dalam Pengembangan Kawasan DAS Mamberamo di Irian Jaya (5 pages)
* Harijono Djojodihardjo, BPPT, Upaya Mendukung Industri Padat Energi di DAS Mamberamo (21 pages)
* Rioji Anahara, Fuel Cell Development Information Center, Japan, The Present Development Status and Future Role of Fuel Cells and Its Prospective Applications in Mamberamo River Basin Project (30 pages)
* Field note 19.12.1992, Fact finding survey on integrated Mamberamo River Basin Development Project and Integrated Digul and Bian-Maro River Basin Rural Development Project (12 pages)
* Gubernur Irja, Sambutan Seminar (3 pages)
* Systra-Sofretu-Sofrerail, Session V: Regional Area and Infrastructure Development Plan and Electric Transportation (10 pages)
* Departemen Perhubungan, Peranan Transportasi Darat dalam Pengembangan DAS Mamberamo (8 pages)
* Isso Taniguchi & Shuichi Sato, Nippon Koei Jakarta Office, Approach to water Resources and Agricultural Development in Mamberamo River Basin Hasil
studi di luar seminar:
* BPPT dan IPB, Pola Pengembangan Pertanian di Wilayah DAS Mamberamo Irian Jaya, 1996/1997 (78 pages)
* Shafiq Prayitno, Studi Pengembangan Sumberdaya Pertanian DAS Mamberamo (25 pages). <>

Print Friendly

Tags: , , , , , , , , , , ,


FacebookWhatsAppTwitterGoogle+EmailShare

Action!


Rainforest Instead of Palm Oil



Petitions

Upcoming events

Follow us



UA-74856012-1